Exploring the Rich History and Culture of Baku

Exploring the Rich History and Culture of Baku

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  • Post last modified:January 19, 2024

Baku is the capital of Azerbaijan and is famous for its unique fusion and historical architecture. It is known across the world for existing as the lowest-lying federal nation located 28 meters below sea level. It possesses beautiful views and magnificent landscapes, making it one of the tourist spots in the country. The amazing city lies on the shores of the Caspian Sea, particularly on the southern coast of the Absheron Peninsula. Along with the Bay of Baku, It is surrounded by mountains in the Caucasus, giving it a scenic and beautiful view.

The city is treasured with a medieval heart. It is surrounded by contemporary infrastructure, making it a modern paradise for travelers. Though it has accommodated modernization, its cultural and medieval heritage is still young in the hearts of people. The old city of Baku has been labeled a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

According to World Data Info, tourist arrivals in Azerbaijan averaged 796,000 people in 2023. Though the statistics remarkably fell due to COVID-19, the city still welcomes thousands of people each year. The magnificent beauty of the city has captured the hearts of millions of tourists across the world. Sooner or later, everyone plans to visit the city because of its cultural heritage and medieval history.

In this blog post, we are going to discuss the history and culture of Baku and come across its traditions, festivals, beliefs, and lifestyle.

About Baku

Baku is a beautiful city located on the coast of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The city is a huge center for industrial, scientific, and cultural practices. It covers the entire region with its beauty and artistic architecture, making it one of the main tourist spots in the country. The city is a major port on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, located in the southern region of the Absheron Peninsula.

Over the last ten years, the city has adapted to modernization and significantly transformed. Various new multi-story apartments, shopping centers, hotels, and banks have been constructed, which makes the city more lively and enthusiastic. The 11 administrative councils effectively govern the city. measure ups and downs, fulfill requirements, modernize, and help maintain tourist attractions.

The population of the city mirrors the ethnic composition of the country. It is home to more than 23 lakh people from different backgrounds and religious beliefs. Islam is the majority religion in the city, with more than 97% of people identifying themselves as Muslims.

The official language spoken in the city is Azerbaijani. But historically, people spoke Russian in and around the districts of the city. In recent years, many new communities have emerged and settled on the lands of Baku, making it a multilingual city with people speaking English, Azerbaijani, and Russian.

The area of the city is approximately 22 thousand square kilometers. The central region of the city stretches extensively to Baku Bay, like a theatre or a stadium. The Old City of Baku, also known as Icheri Sheher, holds many historical events and cultural heritage sites. It is the oldest part of the city surrounded by walls and old buildings.

In industrial regions and highways, the construction is luxuriant, but in the suburbs, it is scanty. With modernization, new constructions were raised on the cliffs along Baku Bay. Since the population of the city has grown in recent years, the residential districts and encompassing regions are also being constructed.

The Climate of the City

When it comes to the climate, the city has a temperate climate with hot summers and low humidity. The winters are usually mild, with an average annual temperature around +3.4 degrees Celcius.

History of Baku

According to the environment and population of Baku, it is considered one of the largest cities in the country. Historically, the city was a major site of the Shirvanshahs state in the 12th century, the Safavids state in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire in the 17th, and the evidence shows Baku khanate in the 18th century. The name of the city is uncovered in medieval Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and European manuscripts and historical sources. It has been noted as a rich city on the Great Silk Way.

People anciently settled in this territory, which was eventually crowded with immigrants, establishing a colony. This is because the geographical and physical location of the city lies in the center of migration and trade routes. Extending from north to south, the “Silk Way” was established considering climatic conditions, valuable energy substances, and locational assets.

It was called the city of miracles in ancient scripts and had a rich cultural heritage. Travelers of ancient times wrote many articles about the flames of the Absheron peninsula. The first manuscript concerning the city was published during the rule of the Egyptian Pharaon Menesa. Besides, several  Archeological findings elaborate on the history of the city.

Culture of Baku

Major features of Azerbaijani culture are the decorative and applied arts, buildings, and unique structures. The government of the city also actively contributes to the cultural heritage Under the rule of the president, Mr. Ilham Aliyev, several historic structures and natural areas have been declared as the state’s historical-architectural, ethnographic, and cultural reserves. Restoration construction is underway in all regions of the country to revive cultural facilities, historical and architectural temples, towers, walls, bridges, and caravanserais.


Baku is a city full of historical events, culture, food, and a unique lifestyle. People enjoy visiting the place because of its loaded tourist attractions and medieval archaeological sites. In this blog, we have discussed the city, its past life, events, and culture.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Which country borders Baku?

Ans. The city is bordered by Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south.

Q. On which sea is Baku located?

Ans. The city is located on the Caspian Sea.

Q. Is the city famous for its nightlife?

Ans. Yes, the city has multiple clubs and bars that tourists enjoy from breathtaking landscapes and skyscrapers.

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